Tara Keyser (USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station) will discuss her recent research conducted alongside Mary Arthur (University of Kentucky) and David Loftis (USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station). In 2002, three study sites were established in eastern Kentucky. Each site had three treatment areas that were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: Frequent Fire (FF); Less Frequent Fire (LFF); or Fire Excluded (FE). Before and after treatments, the number of seedlings were counted and data were sorted by species and size class of the seedlings (small, medium, or large seedlings). Long-term changes in the abundance of understory tree species in response to fire frequency were observed and potential effects on future species composition will be discussed.